The Ottawa Treaty (or the Mine Ban Treaty), formally the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction, bans completely all anti-personnel landmines (AP-mines).
Responding to a challenge issued by Canada in October 1996, 122 countries stated their intention to implement the Treaty on 3 December 1997. Forty ratifications are required for a treaty to come into effect and become international law. The Ottawa treaty entered into force and became binding among the ratifying states on 1 March 1999. After that date, each additional country becomes bound six months after its instrument is deposited. At that point the country is considered to be a party to the Treaty.
As of January 2011, 156 countries have signed and ratified the Treaty. Poland and the Marshall Islands have signed but not ratified. Thirty-seven states, including the People’s Republic of China, India, Pakistan, Russia and the United States have not signed.